Two food safety behaviors/practices were identified as needing the most improvement








Food safety management systems (FSMS) play a major role in compliance. Inadequate FSMS were the strongest predictor of data items being out-of-compliance in both fast food and full-service restaurants.

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Risk Factors in Fast Food and Full-Service Restaurants Initial Findings

Control over Foodborne Illness Risk Factors Of the foodborne illness risk factors, restaurants had the best control over “inadequate cooking.” There remains a need to gain better control over “improper holding/time and temperature” and “poor personal hygiene."

Two food safety behaviors/practices were identified as needing the most improvement:

  • Cold holding of foods requiring refrigeration: Time/temperature control for safety (TCS) foods should be held under refrigeration at
    or below 41°F (5°C) to limit the growth of pathogens that may be present on the food
  • Employee Handwashing (includes both when to wash and how to wash properly): Knowing when and how to properly wash hands is critical in reducing the spread of pathogens from food employees’ hands to food, food contact surfaces, and equipment.

Restaurants were found to have the best control over two food safety behaviors/practices:

  • Ensuring no bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods
  • Cooking raw animal-derived foods (meat, poultry, eggs) to their required temperatures

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